Rabu, 05 September 2012

Pressure Gauge (PG)

Pressure gauge adalah alat yang digunakan untuk mengukur tekanan fluida (gas atau liquid) dalam tabung tertutup. Satuan dari alat ukur tekanan ini berupa psi (pound per square inch), psf (pound per square foot), mmHg (millimeter of mercury), inHg (inch of mercury), bar, atm (atmosphere), N/m^2 (pascal).



Pembagian tekanan :

1. Absolute Pressure yaitu tekanan yang dihitung berdasarkan tekanan referensi 1 atm. Besaran tekanan absolute lebih dikenal dengan PSIA. (PSIA = PSIG + Patm).

2. Gauge pressure yaitu tekanan positif terhadap tekanan referensi 1 atm, yang berarti tekanan ini lebih besar dari 1 atm. Besaran tekanan gauge lebih dikenal dengan PSIG. Dalam kondisi ini maka PSIG > 1 atm.

3. Vaccum pressure yaitu tekanan negatif terhadap tekanan atmosfir atau bisa juga dikatakan tekanan vaccum ini berada dibawah tekanan atmosfir sehingga bernilai negatif. PSIA < 1 atm.

 4. Hydrostatic pressure adalah tekanan yang terjadi di bawah air. Tekanan ini terjadi karena adanya berat air yang membuat cairan tersebut mengeluarkan tekanan. Tekanan sebuah cairan bergantung pada kedalaman cairan di dalam sebuah ruang dan gravitasi juga menentukan tekanan air tersebut.Hubungan ini dirumuskan sebagai berikut: "P = ρgh" dimana ρ adalah masa jenis cairan, g (10 m/s2) adalah gravitasi, dan h adalah kedalaman cairan.

5. Differential pressure yaitu tekanan yang diukur terhadap tekanan lain. Besarannya PSID.


Macam-macam alat ukur tekanan ini adalah :

1. Barometer adalah alat yang digunakan untuk mengukur tekanan atmosfir. Alat ukur ini memiliki satuan mb. Barometer ada dua jenis yaitu barometer raksa dan barometer aneroid, kedua jenis barometer ini memiliki fungsi yang sama yaitu untuk mengukur tekanan udara. Barometer baik raksa maupun aneroid dipengaruhi oleh ketinggian, karena semakin tinggi keadaan saat pengukuran maka semakin kecil tekanan udara sehingga perlu kalibrasi. Prinsip inilah yang digunakan pada barometer yang akan langsung terbaca pada perbedaan ketinggan air raksa pada barometer tersebut untuk menentukan tekanan udara.
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Old-barometers.jpg/220px-Old-barometers.jpg)
(http://forums.watchuseek.com/attachments/f233/418029d1302201780-what-factors-variables-effect-barometer-altimiter-readings-mercurybarometer.jpg)

2. Manometer adalah alat yang digunakan untuk mengukur tekanan cairan (yaitu cairan dan gas).

(http://www.iflyez.com/ManometerGuage1.jpg)
(http://www.chem-is-try.org/wp-content/uploads/2009/05/gb44444.jpg)

3. Bourdon tube adalah metal berongga indikator tekanan yang berbentuk "C" yang berada didalam pressure gauge yang akan lurus jika mendapat tekanan. Para pengukur tekanan Bourdon menggunakan prinsip bahwa tabung pipih cenderung berubah diluruskan atau lebih besar penampang melingkar ketika bertekanan. (Wikipedia)
(http://www.prestonservices.co.uk/Budenburg_PGauge_1.jpg)
(http://www.inventionware.com/images/bourdon-pressure-gauge.jpg)

4. Bellows Gage adalah sebuah perangkat untuk mengukur tekanan yang rendah (bellows), dengan pelat ujung yang melekat pada sebuah pegas, menyebabkan gerakan terukur dari piring.
(http://firecontrolman.tpub.com/14104/img/14104_234_1.jpg)

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